Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

Author: Brigadier Andrew Smith Surprise is a familiar term in military writings and is enshrined in most nations’ doctrine. Surprises that emerge in tactics, however, can also operate at the strategic and operational levels and are particularly dangerous because they can test the relevance and adaptability of military forces and the “institutional” defense establishments that …

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