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Colombia’s Paramilitaries: Criminals or Political Force?

Author: Mr David Spencer The intent of this monograph was to explore the multiple dimensions of Colombia’s ongoing crisis and inform the public debate regarding the challenges faced by the statesmen, intellectuals, military strategists, and others who take on the responsibility to deal with that crisis. Hopefully, it will also generate serious reflection about the …

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The Drug Scourge as a Hemispheric Problem

Author: Gen Barry R McCaffrey Former Drug Czar General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Retired) argues that Colombia s 40 million citizens must not be deserted by their neighbors. Leaving the Colombians to deal in isolation with a pervasive drug problem will deeply affect all 800 million of us in the Western Hemisphere through addiction, violence, and …

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The Regional Security Crisis in the Andes: Patterns of State Response

Author: Dr Judith A Gentleman The instability, corruption, displacement of people, and violence generated by Colombia’s unholy trinity of narcotics traffickers, insurgents, and paramilitaries is spilling over into virtually all of northern South America and Panama. Thus, the stability and political sovereignty of the region are being compromised. And, at the same time, progress toward …

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U.S. Security Policy in the Western Hemisphere: Why Colombia, Why Now, and What Is To Be Done?

Author: Dr Max G Manwaring This is one in the Special Series of monographs stemming from the February 2001 conference on Plan Colombia cosponsored by the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College and The Dante B. Fascell North-South Center of the University of Miami. In substantive U.S. national security terms, the author …

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Plan Colombia: Some Differing Perspectives

Author: Dr Ricardo Arias Calderon, Dr Gabriel Marcella, Mr Chris Marquis, GEN (Colombia) Alvaro Valencia Tovar, GEN Charles E Wilhelm This monograph, with an introduction by Dr. Gabriel Marcella, includes four short, but interesting and important papers presented at a conference on Plan Colombia, sponsored by the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War …

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The Search for Accountability and Transparency in PLAN COLOMBIA: Reforming Judicial Institutions–Again

Author: Dr Luz E Nagle The author argues that confidence in an efficient, courageous and transparent judiciary goes to the very heart of the governability of Colombia, and that Plan Colombia does not address the root causes of Colombia’s problems. These are weak government, inequality, absence of citizen participation, corruption and an ineffective legal system. …

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Plan Colombia: The View from the Presidential Palace

Author: Mr Eduardo Pizano The author, a former member of the Colombian Senate and now the General Secretary to the President of Colombia, discusses various misconceptions stemming from the uncertainty and confusion that permeated conference discussions involving U.S. policy in Colombia and the implementation of Plan Colombia. He makes several points that are both compelling …

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U.S. Support of PLAN COLOMBIA: Rethinking the Ends and Means

Author: Dr Stephen E Flynn The author argues that the U.S. emphasis on drug control in its support of Plan Colombia is misguided and akin to prescribing an antibiotic regime to combat a disease not caused by bacteria or similar micro-organisms. The illegal drug industry in Colombia is not the cause of that country s …

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European Perceptions of Plan Colombia: A Virtual Contribution to a Virtual War and Peace Plan?

Author: Dr Joaquin Roy Professor Joaquin Roy, a Spaniard with valuable sources throughout Europe, notes that Europeans apparently do not approve of the seeming U.S. emphasis on providing military equipment and training to Colombia for a counternarcotics effort in what they see as a larger strategic political conflict. At the same time, he reports that …

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Plan Colombia: The Strategic and Operational Imperatives

Author: Dr Gabriel Marcella The United States is committed to helping Colombia fight its struggle against the violence and corruption engendered by the traffic in narcotics. This report examines the strategic theory within Plan Colombia, the master plan which the government of Colombia developed to strengthen democracy through peace, security, and economic development. The author …

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Fighting the Hobbesian Trinity in Colombia: A New Strategy for Peace

Author: COL Joseph R Nunez The author analyzes the drug intervention conundrum of Colombia. He then summarizes the reasons for the violent and anarchic situation that frustrates those wishing to make peace and expand democracy. After introducing what he calls the Hobbesian trinity, the author discusses alternatives to intervention and notes the complexity of the …

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The United States and Colombia: Untying the Gordian Knot

Author: AMB David Passage Twenty-five years after the end of the Vietnam War, the ghost of that war still haunts the corridors of the decision makers when it comes to making long-term commitments to situations that remotely resemble anything like our Indochina experience. That is the case in with Colombia, which is embroiled in an …

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Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century

Author: Dr Richard Downes On December 10 and 11, 1998, over 100 scholars, civilian government officials, and military officers from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama and Mexico gathered at the U.S. Army War College to discuss “Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century.” While the conference adopted no …

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Colombia’s Three Wars: U.S. Strategy at the Crossroads

Author: Dr Gabriel Marcella, Dr Donald E Schulz Colombia is the most troubled country in the Western Hemisphere. Drug criminals, guerrillas, and paramilitary groups are feeding a spiral of violence that makes “colombianization” a metaphor for a failing state. The authors address the strategic dimensions of the crisis. It argues that Colombia’s future deeply affects …

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Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The United States, Mexico, and the Agony of National Security

Author: Dr Donald E Schulz The North American Free Trade Association has accelerated its interdependence with the U.S. economy. At the same time, Mexico has been experiencing great political, economic, and social disruption, and has become the territory of origin or transit of most of the illegal drugs entering the United States. The growing interpenetration …

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The Mexican Military Approaches the 21st Century: Coping with a New World Order

Author: LTC Stephen J Wager In 1993, the Strategic Studies Institute and the University of Arizona cosponsored a conference on “Mexico Looks to the 21st Century: Change and Challenge.” It brought together a distinguished group of academic and government specialists to discuss Mexico’s future, particularly the changes likely to be brought about by the North …

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